on the fuel pump, did you pull the output line to the carbs off?
normally when the bike has sat overnight, when you turn on the ignition and turn off the kill-switch, the fuel pump will run for a second or two, makes a low hum, like you asked an old man a profound question and he has no answer HhMmmmmm......
that because when you park the bike hot and turn the petcock off the float bowls evaporate out, and have to be filled the next morning
if they are full when you turn the key on, you will hear nothing - thats why you have to pull the fuel line off the carbs and see how much flows out.
This might be a good time for the good news: the factory service manual for your bike is on the internet, if you search for yamaha factory service manual Vstar 650 it should be easy to find as a free download. There should be a fuel pump test description in it better than I can type out from memory.
The only drawback for the pdf free manuals is the table of contents links dont always work, so if you find the page in the index, you have to scroll thru it page by page to get to the right section.
from what you said the fuel pump sounds like its a bit off - one shortcut (if it is bad) you can put the line from the fuel filter right to the carbs, and the bike will run correctly if the tank is full. The fuel pump is there because the bottom of the tank is below the float bowls, so when you get below half a tank the bowls wont fill without the fuel pump.
Im not sure, but I think a faulty fuel pump will block the fuel line, even when the tank is full - so thats something you can try with a full tank of gas to debug it, bypass the fuel pump.