i'll be the young whippersnapper here and shed some light on the tech that may be pushing lead acid and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) batteries to the side soon, and what i've been using the past few years: lithium iron phosphate batteries, or LiFePO₄, not to be confused with lithium ion batteries - Lithium-ion vs LiFePO4 vs….
some advantages lithium iron phosphate has over lead acid and AGM batteries:
1)less maintenance (no dealing with distilled water and filling it up and such, or trickle charging)
2)lasts up to a year on a single charge without having to recharge or maintain (as long as there is no draw from the vehicle it is housed in)
3)significantly lighter and smaller. my OEM YUASA battery is 6 in. x 3 7⁄16 in. x 4 3⁄8 in., 8.6 lbs. my shorai is 3.4 x 5.8 x 3.5 in., 2.45 lbs
4)lifespan can be up to 10 years, compared to 3-5 years for the others
5)warranties - because of the longer lifespan, a lot of companies selling these are offering longer warranties. my current shorai battery has a 5 year warranty. i've seen some companies offer an 8 year warranty. before i re-wired my bike's LED lighting system it would somehow turn on while i was at work and drain my previous shorai battery. i was able to jump start it and use it for a few days after but the damage was done. shorai replaced it without me even having to send in the bad battery.
6)higher tech - chargers and computers on the batteries themselves can provide info on the charge/voltage/current
7)quicker, and dependable starts. LiFePO₄ aren't susceptible to cold mornings and start up just as quickly as on a hot day with no hesitation.
7b)has more cold crank amps. my OEM YUASA battery has 230 cold crank amps. my shorai has 285
8)you can choose which side to put which polarity when you order
1)currently LiFePO₄ batteries are considerably more expensive. my shorai battery cost about $150
2)can be more temperamental. if the battery does go dead or overdrained even once, it could be permanently damaged as noted up above
3)lead acid chargers won't work on these. but there are numerous charger options that can do both lead acid and LiFePO₄ battery charging for about the same price
there's probably more, but i think these are the main ones.
Do they suffer from the cold the same way Lithium ion do?